Illicit removal of cultural property from its state of origin annually reaches losses estimated at about 10 billion USD. At the moment protection of cultural property and prohibition of illicit removal of it has become popular to the United Nations Security Council’s (UNSC) resolution of March 24th, 2017, which highlighted the international society’s condemn in regards to ISIS activities in the Middle East when destroying different cultural monuments and stealing cultural objects to finance their terroristic actions. Moreover, the subject is actual considering the International Criminal Court’s (ICC) decision on August 17th, 2017 ordering former Mali Islamist to pay 2,7 million EUR for the damage done to Timbuktu cultural sites. The article aims to identify whether exists a customary rule, which would order states not bound by conventional norms to repatriate cultural objects to their state of origin and proprietor. ...READ MORE

In the current climate of economic uncertainty, the investment focus is increasingly shifting towards alternative investments, which allow to diversify the investment portfolio and spread the risk incurred over various types of investments. Alongside traditional asset classes such as bonds, equity securities, real estate, and gold, new types of investments have emerged over the last decades. Accordingly, more and more investors, investment funds, family offices, or high-net-worth individuals decided to invest in more exotic products such as debt investment, venture capital, wine, cars, watches and other luxury goods, or artworks. ...READ MORE

Copyright is the right of limited duration. Contrary to the ownership of the physical objects that will continue as long as there is the subject of copyright has the right to a time limit. After this deadline, the work becomes public property, and everyone can use it freely. Works whose copyrights have expired, anyone can freely use, without asking for any permission and without paying. These works are all in public domain. The article tells us about what you can do, what you cannot do and how far you can go in using the the works in public domain. ...READ MORE

This article puts the concepts of attribution and authenticity in simple words. It helps to distinguish these two complex issues, which are often used interchangeably. ...READ MORE

Art prints form a separate and independent segment of art market. They are produced in multiples where each peace forms an original work of art. Therefore, art prints are highly collectible. Even adjusted for risk, investing in prints appears to be quite attractive. Where something becomes worth of collecting and transacting, along come the swindlers. This article will discuss the most typical types of malpractice in art print transactions and provide some advice on how to protect yourself when buying the desired piece. ...READ MORE

Simply put, appropriation is the use of objects or images already created by somebody else with little or no transformation applied to them. These objects or images then become a part or even a whole of the new art object or an image. Somebody a bit knowledgeable in the matter of copyright might immediately react saying that this is not allowed, however, it is not entirely correct. Here we enter into the shady area of copyright. ...READ MORE

This paper discusses legal issues pertaining to the international protection of the underwater cultural heritage (“UCH”) against activities directed at the exploration and recovery of such heritage from the seabed, especially historic shipwrecks and artefacts on board such shipwrecks. This so-called treasure hunting or other, not mercantile but nonetheless harmful activities aimed at recovery of historic objects from the seabed, are not necessarily unauthorized or illegal. As it will be shown, in many cases such activities can, at most, be defined as undesirable from the perspective of the need to preserve UCH for the mankind, but they remain legal from both a national and international law perspective.  ...READ MORE

An important detail to add to this quote is that attribution and provenance are too, becoming less and less visible. With the plurality of various social media platforms, it is almost impossible to track one’s own image. This article is engaging with questions of digital provenance and copyright, a question of credibility of the authenticity of a digital image. Such digital platforms as ascribe, s[edition], ikonoTV and, most importantly, bitcoin shall be discussed. ...READ MORE

During the largest part of the 19th century, the study of folklore and the eventual discussion of its protection belonged traditionally to anthropology. At the time, folklore was studied as part of the traditions of “peasants”, part of what was considered to be the life and history of “savages” or “primitive populations”. The article discusses the development of the mindset of the society, existing international regulations protecting the folklore and difference of its forms of protection from the copyright system. ...READ MORE

Mediation and art might become a match made in Heaven for complex art-related disputes provided the inherent creativity of the mediation process and the possibilities to consider numerous interests involved from all different scopes and perspectives. The article discusses mediation as the alternative way of dispute resolution, its applicability to art disputes, as well as poses some questions for reflection and further discussion. ...READ MORE